1. although，though，even though，even if都表示“虽然，即使，尽管”之意，though 和although 语气较弱(其中的though 比although 通俗, 不如although 正式)，even if和even though 带有强调意味而显得语气更强。例如：Although they are poor, they are happy. 虽然他们很穷，但很快乐。// Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat. 天气虽然很冷, 但他没有穿大衣就出去了。// Though they may not succeed, they will still try. 即使他们可能不会成功，但他们仍努力尝试。// The article is very important though it is short. 那篇文章虽然很短，但很重要。// He is better, though not yet cured. 他好一点了，虽仍未痊愈。// Even though it was raining, she walked to work. 即使下雨，她也是走着去工作的。// I’ll visit him this evening even if I can stay only a few minutes. 今晚我将去拜访他，即使我只能停留一小会儿。
2. as引导让步状语从句表示“虽然、即使、尽管”，其引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构，as引导的倒装形式的让步状语从句的基本结构为：形容词/副词/名词(单数可数名词前一般不带冠词，有时也可见单数可数名词前形容词与不定冠词连用、形容词放在不定冠词前)/动词/过去分词+as+主语+谓语的其他部分。注意体会下列典型例句：Great as the author was, he proved a bad model. 这位作者尽管了不起，到头来却成了一个坏榜样。// Ridiculous as it seems, the tale is true. 这个故事看似荒唐，却是真的。// Rich as he is, he is not happy. 虽然他很富有，但他并不幸福。// Child as he is, he can tell black from white.(倒装时要省去单个名词前的冠词)尽管还是个孩子，他却能分辨黑白。// Brave (a) man as he is, he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢，可见到蛇还是发抖。// Badly wounded as he was, he remained quite optimistic. 尽管伤势很重，他仍然十分乐观。// Try as he would, he could not lift the rock. 虽然尽了最大努力，但是他仍然不能搬动那块石头。
[考题1] We had to wait half an hour ____ we had already booked a table.
A. since B. although C. until D. before
[考题2] ____ most of the earth’s surface is covered by water, fresh water is very rare and precious.
A. As B. Once C. If D. Although
[考题3] ____ he has limited technical knowledge, the old worker has a lot of experience.
A. Since B. Unless C. As D. Although
[考题4] Although he is considered a great writer, ____.
A. his works are not widely read
B. but his works are not widely read
C. however his works are not widely read
D. still his works are not widely read
[解析] 英语不允许在连词although、though引导的让步状语从句之后的主句句首重复使用连词，如果要在复合句中强调某种特别的意义，可以在主句的句首加上yet、still等副词。例如：Although she has a lot of money, (yet/still) she is not happy. 虽然她很有钱，但是她并不快乐。
本题题干中没有通过特定的语境暗示需要对主句进行特别强调，因此只需用although引导让步状语从句即可，不必在主句的句首加副词(更不能在主句的句首加连词)。注意：本题中的works指“作品、著作”，例如表达“莎士比亚的作品”可以用“the works of Shakespeare”。
[考题5] There was never any time for Kate to feel lonely, ____ she was an only child.
A. ever since B. now that C. even though D. even as
[解析] 下划线处应引导让步状语从句，四个选项中只有even though可以引导让步状语从句。
[考题6] Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, ____ they knew it to be valuable.
A. as if B. now that C. even though D. so that
[解析] “Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice”和“they knew it to be valuable”意思相反，四个选项中引导让步状语从句的even though最为适合。
[考题7] Allow children the space to voice their opinions, ____ they are different from your own.
A. until B. even if C. unless D. as though
[解析] 题干句意为：让孩子们有发言的空间，即使他们的观点与你的不同。从句与主句为让步关系，应由even if 引导从句。
[考题8] ____, he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class.
A. A quiet student as he may be B. Quiet student as he may be
C. Be a quiet student as he may D. Quiet as he may be a student
[考题9] ____, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John.
A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled so much
C. Much as I have traveled D. As I have traveled so much
[解析] 从句“I have traveled”与主句“I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John”之间具有明显的让步关系，本题应选用as的倒装形式引导让步状语从句。
[考题10] ____, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting.
A. Strange as might it sound B. As it might sound strange
C. As strange it might sound D. Strange as it might sound
1 略读 粗略地阅读语言材料的面式阅读法，通过略读获取阅读材料的主要内容和大意。快速阅读时，训练学生略读文章标题判断预测主要内
1 Practice makes perfect 熟能生巧。 2 God helps those who help themselves 天助自助者。 3 Easier said than
take a the chance 冒风险;碰运气 take after与……相像 take apart拆开;剖析;粗暴对待 take care小心，当心; take
关系代词(在句中作主语、宾语或定语) 1 that既可代表事物也可代表人，which代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语，that在从句中作宾